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Type 2 diabetes: Losing even a small amount of weight can save your heart

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People with type 2 diabetes are often encouraged to lose weight. And recent studies have shown that losing a lot of weight can reverse diabetes, meaning the person no longer has to take drugs to treat their disease. Unfortunately, most people struggle to lose large amounts of weight and keep the weight off. However, there has been little research on the impact of losing a moderate amount of weight – which would be an easier goal for most people.


Our latest study shows that losing a moderate amount of weight could reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke, the most common complications of diabetes.


Our team assessed weight change in 725 people who were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The participants had their weight measured at the time of their diagnosis and again one year later. We focused on weight loss in the year after a diabetes diagnosis, as weight loss early on may be more beneficial than weight loss later.


People who lost at least 5% of their weight in the year after they were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes had a 48% lower risk of cardiovascular disease after ten years, compared with people who kept the same weight. People who lost weight also had significantly lower blood glucose (sugar), blood pressure and cholesterol levels one year after they received a diagnosis compared with people who kept the same weight. The results couldn’t be explained by age, sex, smoking or medication as these “confounders” were taken into account in our analysis.


The sooner, the better


While our study showed potential long-term benefits of just 5% weight loss, past research has mostly focused on larger amounts of weight loss. In a US study, people with type 2 diabetes who lost 10% of their weight in one year had lower rates of cardiovascular disease after ten years compared with people who maintained their weight or gained weight.


But unlike the participants in our study, participants in the US study were not newly diagnosed with diabetes. They had, on average, been diagnosed seven years before the study started. It is possible that smaller amounts of weight loss soon after diabetes diagnosis may be just as beneficial as larger amounts of weight loss later on.


Our study participants were from the east of England and most were white, so the results may not apply to other populations. Also, most participants in the study were overweight or obese at the time of diabetes diagnosis. So the results don’t suggest that people with diabetes who are a normal weight or underweight should lose weight. However, our findings emphasise the potential benefits of even modest weight loss for people with type 2 diabetes.


Being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may inspire some people to make changes to their lifestyle to try and lose weight. Intensive diet and exercise programmes have been shown to help people with diabetes to lose weight. Unfortunately, there are no established guidelines in the UK for doctors to provide patients with weight-loss support and most patients don’t have access to these programmes.


Yet evidence from our study suggests that some people can lose weight after being diagnosed and hence lower their risk of cardiovascular disease, even without a weight-loss support programme. So people with type 2 diabetes may want to consider focusing more attention towards setting moderate weight-loss goals.The Conversation


Jean Strelitz, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Cambridge


This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

 


The Conversation



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Medtronic says won’t recall pacemakers after drug regulator issues alert

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Medtronic India has said it is not recalling its pacemaker models in the country and is in discussion with relevant stakeholders following an alert issued by drug regulator Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) over the performance of pacemakers.


CDSCO has alerted patients with implants of three Medtronic pacemaker models to seek immediate medical care if they feel certain symptoms that could be signs of the devices’ sudden battery depletion.


Medtronic sells in India, Astra pacemaker, Solara CRT-P and Serena CRT-P.


“We have and continue to communicate proactively with the doctors and relevant stakeholders in India and have informed them about the performance note. There have been no patient issues reported in India related to this performance note,” the statement by the company said.


Stressing that it was “not a case of product recall”, Medtronic India said, “We are in proactive discussion with CDSCO”.


Medtronic has published a performance note about a rare mode in a population of Azure and Astra pacemakers and Percepta, Serena and Solara cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers.


“We have received three complaints out of 266,700 devices distributed worldwide since February 2017. The projected rate of occurrence for this issue is 0.0028 per cent, with the most susceptible period being the first 12 months after a device is implanted,” the statement said.


In consultation with company’s independent physician quality panel, “We do not recommend device replacement, and advise physicians to continue normal patient follow-up in accordance with standard practice and, where possible, to continue with remote monitoring,” it added.


“While the devices continue to perform well within reliability projections, Medtronic has implemented additional process and component enhancements that have been reviewed and approved by Food and Drug Administration,” the statement said.


The CDSCO has asked patients with any of the three models to seek immediate medical care if they feel light-headed, dizzy or experience chest pain and loss of consciousness.


The alert by the regulator came after the US Food and Drug Administration raised alarm over the use of the pacemaker models Astra, Serena and Solara.


In its alert on May 7, the USFDA cited a case in which a Medtronic implantable pacemaker or CRT-P battery had fully drained because of a crack in the device’s capacitor, without any warning to the patient or health care provider.


Medtronic’s implantable pacemakers or cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker (CRT-Ps) are devices that provide pacing for slow heart rhythms and heart failure pacemakers and CRT-Ps are both implanted under the skin in the upper chest area with connecting insulated wires called leads that go into the heart.


As per the alert by CDSCO, doctors have been recommended to be alert and consider whether elective device replacement is warranted for a pacemaker patient.


“Be aware of sudden battery level drops during follow-up visits and remote transmissions. Watch for decrease in battery level out of proportion to the life of the device from the time of implant even if the level remains within the normal range,” the alert stated.



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Health

India’s drug regulator warns patients against faulty Medtronic pacemakers

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The Indian drug regulator has alerted patients with implants of three Medtronic pacemaker models to seek immediate medical care if they feel light-headed, dizzy or experience chest pain and loss of consciousness, saying these could be signs of the devices’ sudden battery depletion.


The alert by Central Drug Standards Control Organisation (CDSCO) came after the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) raised alarm over the use of the pacemaker models Astra, Serena and Solara.


In its alert on May 7, the USFDA cited a case in which a Medtronic implantable pacemaker or CRT-P battery had fully drained because of a crack in the device’s capacitor, without any warning to the patient or health care provider.


If a capacitor in a CRT-P is cracked, it can create an electric short, which can cause the battery to drain earlier than expected.


Medtronic’s implantable pacemakers or cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers (CRT-Ps) are devices that provide pacing for slow heart rhythms and heart failure pacemakers and CRT-Ps are both implanted under the skin in the upper chest area with connecting insulated wires called leads that go into the heart.


India’s CDSCO has advised patients to seek immediate medical assistance if they feel dizzy, light-headed, severe short breath or loss of consciousness.


“These may be signs that your device’s battery has had a sudden drop or has drained,” it said.


Doctors have been recommended to be alert and consider whether elective device replacement is warranted for a pacemaker patient.


“Be aware of sudden battery level drops during follow-up visits and remote transmissions. Watch for decrease in battery level out of proportion to the life of the device from the time of implant even if the level remains within the normal range,” the alert stated.


Medtronic reported that healthcare providers were unable to communicate with the device due to battery depletion resulting in loss of pacemaker function. It also reported these events occurred in the US within one year after the patient was implanted with the pacemaker or CRT-P.


One of the reported events resulted in the death of a pacemaker-dependent patient.


In another reported incident, the patient experienced dizziness during follow-up and the healthcare provider was unable to communicate with the device, which resulted in the patient getting their device replaced.


In the third event, there was no harm to the patient because the device was not implanted when the healthcare provider became aware that a connection with the device could not be established.



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Specialised microscope can diagnose skin cancer, perform surgeries: Study

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Scientists have developed a specialised microscope that has the potential to diagnose diseases like skin cancer as well as perform precise surgery without making any incisions in the skin.


According to the study published in the journal Science Advances, the microscope allows medical professionals to pinpoint the exact location of an abnormality, diagnose it and treat it instantly.



“Our technology allows us to scan tissue quickly, and when we see a suspicious or abnormal cell structure, we can perform ultra-precise surgery and selectively treat the unwanted or diseased structure within the tissue — without cutting into the skin,” said Yimei Huang from the University of British Columbia in Canada.


It could be used to treat any structure of the body that can be reached by light and requires extremely precise treatment, including nerves or blood vessels in the skin, eye, brain or other vital structures, researchers said.


“For diagnosing and scanning diseases like skin cancer, this could be revolutionary,” said Harvey Lui, professor at the University of British Columbia.


The study shows that the device allows imaging of living tissue up to about one millimetre in depth using an ultrafast infrared laser beam.


Researchers said that this microscope, however, is different from previous technology due to its capability to not only digitally scan living tissue, but also treat the tissue by intensifying the heat produced by the laser.


“We can alter the pathway of blood vessels without impacting any of the surrounding vessels or tissues,” said Lui.


The researchers also said that their aim is to make multiphoton microscope technology more versatile while also increasing its precision.


“We wanted to be able to identify what was happening under the skin from many different angles and to have the capability of imaging different body sites,” said Haishan Zeng from the University of British Columbia.


Developments of a miniature version of the telescope that could be used to perform microscopic examinations and treatment during endoscopy are also underway, researchers said.


“We are not only the first to achieve fast video-rate imaging that enables clinical applications, but also the first to develop this technology for therapeutic uses,” said Zeng.

(Only the headline and picture of this report may have been reworked by the Business Standard staff; the rest of the content is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)



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